A timeline of the history of the universe. THE INFLATIONARY UNIVERSE.

It is less clear if it also stopped everywhere in the universe, or if we live in a region where it stopped while it is still ongoing elsewhere - this is the idea of eternal inflation. In physical cosmology, cosmic inflation, cosmological inflation, or just inflation is Inflation in the early universe is a period of exponential expansion that stretched a small causally-connected patch of the universe by a factor of at least e 60 into a size large enough to encompass the visible universe today. The versions of inflation developed in the early 1980s provided a mechanism for setting the density of the Universe near the critical density with nearly unlimited precision. If nearly all of the energy in the Universe during the early stages of the Big Bang was tied up in Photons (exerting no gravity due to not having a mass) then maybe the speed of the current expansion rate (if the vacuum/spacetime/whatever is Here, a curved surface expands by a factor of three in each panel, appearing nearly flat by the end. In physical cosmology, the inflationary epoch was the period in the evolution of the early universe when, according to inflation theory, the universe underwent an extremely rapid exponential expansion.This rapid expansion increased the linear dimensions of the early universe by a factor of at least 10 26 (and possibly a much larger factor), and so increased its volume by a factor of Inflation could mean our Universe is just one of many. The big idea that actually succeeded is known, today, as cosmic inflation. The Early Universe. b) The universe has not always looked the way it looks today. During the first fraction of a second, the forces separated and there was a brief but important episode of inflation. Inflation was first proposed by Alan Guth in 1979 while investigating the problem of why no magnetic monopoles are seen today; he found that a positive-energy false vacuum would, according to general relativity, generate an exponential expansion of space. About Me. Subatomic particles of both matter and antimatter then began to appear from the energy present in the universe. To solve these, the big bang theory is modified by the inflation theory, which states that the universe expanded rapidly shortly after it was created. However, that doesnt mean inflation is right. In the first moments after the Big Bang, the universe was extremely hot and dense. But the early universe was a much different place, and scalar fields that are rare now could have been in abundance back then. Inflation also solves That is, the fact the the universe is so incredibly homogeneous and isotropic despite the fact that some parts of the universe are apparently too far away to have exchanged energy. ( ). The evolution of the homogeneous entanglement entropy under the early-time approximation, Eq. Cosmic inflation has the effect of smoothing things out wonderfully, like putting the early universe in a blender.

For many years an exactly critical Universe was touted as one of the few firm predictions of inflation. Assume, for a moment, the Universe is not expanding. a) The universe is not infinite in space. The inflationary universe is identical to the Big Bang universe for all time after the first 10 30 second. After cosmic inflation ends, the universe is filled with a hot quarkgluon plasma, the remains of reheating. Inflationary universe definition, a version of the big bang theory in which the universe underwent very rapid growth during the first fraction of a second before it settled down to its current rate of expansion.

the relative size of a given patch of the universe at some specified moment; t: the time; d a /d t: the rate at which the scalefactor changes with time; or if you prefer, H: the Hubble rate of expansion, which is defined as d ln a / d t. Well take a=1 and t=0 as end conditions for the calculation. a) The universe is not infinite in space. Credit: Florida State University. And maybe in the end one of those other theories will be the better explanation. During inflation the Universe expanded a factor of 10 54, so that our horizon now only sees a small piece of what was the total Universe from the Big Bang. The origin of this sudden dump of energy is v. t. e. In physical cosmology, the inflationary epoch was the period in the evolution of the early universe when, according to inflation theory, the universe underwent an extremely rapid exponential expansion. Also of note is the flatness problem, which inflation also helps address. See more. Inflation is a given over the long term, and it requires historical context to mean anything. Inflation takes the universe from significantly smaller than a proton and rapidly enlarges it to the size of a grapefruit. 339. Dark matter in a simulated universe. Among other things, inflation explains the horizon problem, as to why even though the proper distance between two antipodal points on the last scattering surface is greater than the horizon distance, and therefore causally disconnected, yet the two points have the same temperature. Others will tell you that the big bang is The basic idea is that at high energies matter is better described by fields than by classical means. 10. Inflation theory puts the minimum size of the universe at around 10^62 times wider in diameter than the observable universe. It is expected that inflation happened everywhere, but outside our observable universe we can't check it of course. Physicists have proposed many other theories for the early universe, for example cyclic cosmology, and those can also explain observations. Such rapid inflation would have forced the curvature of the universe to be nearly zero. Also of note is the flatness problem, which inflation also helps address. The early universe. According to their theory, the history of our existence began billions of years ago with a now absent field that propelled the universe into a It wasn't an explosion. The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) is a relic radiation field that we observe in all directions at a uniform temperature of 3 Kelvin. Inflation is a general term for models of the very early Universe which involve a short period of extremely rapid (exponential) expansion, blowing the size of what is now the observable Universe up from a region far smaller than a proton to about the size of a grapefruit (or even bigger) in a small fraction of a second. The idea that there was a time during the early universe where the expansion was greater than at any other time in the history of the universe. E. Siegel, with images derived from ESA/Planck and the DoE/NASA/ NSF interagency task force on CMB research. Show more. 13.8 billion years ago, all the matter and energy contained within our Universe was concentrated into a volume of space about the size of a soccer ball. The universe began with the forces unified. This is because it occurs right around the Cosmologists further believe that the universe was extremely dense and hot, and interactions between particles were governed by a single force. The problem is, near enough the minimum, almost any potential energy will be quadratic, so if we detect chaotic inflation, and no deviation from it, then we will obtain basically zero information about what caused inflation. Even with all ?

Ive had many interesting reactions to my recent post about inflation, this idea that the early universe expanded exponentially and thereby flattened and smoothed itself. Inflation made the universe flat. One of these problems is the horizon problem. Origins. Answer (1 of 21): If you are asking what is the energy source that drives inflation, the current leading idea is that the energy comes from the symmetry breaking of the Grand Unified Theory (GUT) force. What is meant by the term "observable universe"? c) The distribution of matter in the universe is not uniform on very large scales. Answer (1 of 3): Inflation is a period in the very early Universe between about 10^{-36} and 10^{-32} seconds after the Big Bang during which the Universe expanded by at least a factor of 10^{60} in size. As a whole meaning in this case all of our universe that experienced and then exited inflation. QUICK GROWTH In the most well-accepted picture of the early universe, a period of rapid expansion called inflation follows the Big Bang. Well, Chaotic inflation merely proposes that the potential energy is quadratic. Future observations by some super Planck telescope could show a slight curvature, but for now, the best measurements out there say flat. Note that before 10^-35 seconds the inflation is the steady one from the original Big Bang. Today, the principles at the heart of inflation theory have a profound impact on the way that string theory That places a cutoff on how far you can extrapolate the hot Big Bang backwards: to a time of ~10 -35 seconds and a distance scale of ~1.5 meters. In trying to understand the universe, two major problems remained: the flatness problem and the horizon problem. Home; About. What do we mean by inflation, and when do we think it occurred? Inflation is a sudden and dramatic expansion of the universe thought to have occurred at the end of the GUT era. Why do we think there was slightly more matter than antimatter in the early universe? (KOCHAM) . Description & Origins of Inflation Theory. Inflation in the early universe is a powerful explanation for this intriguing observation. It proposes a period of extremely rapid (exponential) expansion of the universe prior to the more gradual Big Bang expansion, during which time the energy density of the universe was dominated by a cosmological constant-type of vacuum energy that later decayed to produce the matter and radiation that fill the universe today. I have to admit that I'm a little less clear on that. Cosmologists introduced this idea in 1981 to solve several important problems in cosmology. Mar 31, 2018. Subatomic particles of both matter and antimatter then began to appear from the energy present in the universe. The universe goes whoosh, and It proposes that our universe is necessarily one of a The cause of the inflation era was the symmetry breaking at the GUT unification point. THE INFLATIONARY UNIVERSE. Inflationary theory itself is a twist on the conventional Big Bang theory. The shortcoming that inflation is intended to fill in is the basic fact that although the Big Bang theory is called the Big Bang theory it is, in fact, not really a theory of a bang at all; it never was. The basic process of inflation consists of three steps: Inflation is also affecting local fireworks shows, per Michael Cartolano at Pyrotecnico, a fireworks display company. According to this theory, space and time emerged together 13.787 0.020 billion years ago, and the universe has been expanding Inflation in the early universe is a powerful explanation for this intriguing observation. Observations of the large-scale structure of Inflation refers to a very specific epoch in the history of the early universe, when accelerating expansion supposedly took place, inflating the universe by an enormous degree in a very short amount of time, smoothing out any irregularities in the process. A model universe in which this rapid, early expansion occurs is called an inflationary universe. In physical cosmology, assuming that nature is described by a Grand Unified Theory, the grand unification epoch was the period in the evolution of the early universe following the Planck epoch, starting at about 1043 seconds after the Big Bang, in which the temperature of the universe was comparable to the If inflation did occur then perhaps the distance and speed of inflation was determined by the length of the Photon Epoch. Lindes theory goes further. the relative size of a given patch of the universe at some specified moment; t: the time; d a /d t: the rate at which the scalefactor changes with time; or if you prefer, H: the Hubble rate of expansion, which is defined as d ln a / d t. Well take a=1 and t=0 as end conditions for the calculation. Inflationary theory itself is a twist on the conventional Big Bang theory. Conversations About Science with Theoretical Physicist Matt Strassler. Cosmic inflation is a faster-than-light expansion of the universe that spawned many others. The effect of early inflation on the size of the universe. What is the universe made of? Cosmologists introduced this idea in 1981 to solve several important problems in cosmology. a: the scalefactor, i.e. We observe that the universe is homogeneous and isotopic, both today and through the CMB. CMB Polarization. Credit: NASA/COBE. Inflation predicted that these fluctuations should have been 100% adiabatic, which should leave unique signatures in both the cosmic microwave background and the Universes large-scale structure. This light last scattered during a hot and dense stage of the early universe, just as it was transitioning from ionized plasma to neutral gas. The cosmic microwave background is a snapshot of the oldest light in our universe, from when the cosmos was just 380,000 years old. Answer (1 of 11): It is not my preferred model. In modern cosmological models, the very, very early Universe was dominated by a period of exponential growth, known as inflation. From this point onwards the physics of the early universe is much better understood, and the energies involved in the Quark epoch are directly accessible in particle physics experiments and other detectors. Enter string theory, which could be the key to elucidating the secrets of inflation.. Inflate away. #3. The field provides a mechanism by which a period of rapid expansion from 10^35 to 10^34 seconds after the initial expansion can be generated, forming the universe. Obviously, some repulsive force must have emerged, and later ceased, The reason is simple. Even with all One of these problems is the horizon problem. 13.8 billion years ago, all the matter and energy contained within our Universe was concentrated into a volume of space about the size of a soccer ball. This is a theory. The universe (Latin: universus) is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and energy.The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological description of the development of the universe. There are still those who disagree, but theyre now nearly a full 40 years of ot date. In the inflation model, the inflaton is a quantum field that starts off with a large amount of vacuum energy. (10), contributed from the entanglement So, the big bang was the hot, dense, state that the early universe was in. The Cosmic Inflation Theory was born as an extension of the Big Bang Theory to explain how the Universe was created and how everyone and everything got here. For a long time it was regarded simplest and aesthetically most pleasing to postulate that our Universe is now of exactly critical density. The universe began with the forces unified. Even though this hasn't been the leading thought in the field in nearly 40 years, it serves as an example of people, today, getting a well-known detail wrong through simple lack-of-care. Inflation came first, and its end heralded the arrival of the Big Bang. There are still those who disagree, but they're now nearly a full 40 years out of date. This makes no sense. During the first fraction of a second, the forces separated and there was a brief but important episode of inflation. According to the theory of inflation, the early Universe expanded exponentially fast for a fraction of a second after the Big Bang. To relive cosmic inflation, repeat this expansion 87 It is always possible that there exist vast volumes of the universe with vastly differing conditions than those we see in our local patch (See for example eternal inflation.) A few millionths of a second later, quarks aggregated to produce protons and neutrons.